Diverticulosis vs Diverticulitis

Diverticulosis vs Diverticulitis

Diverticulosis and Diverticulitis are collectively referred to as diverticular diseases. These are the digestive conditions that affect the large intestine, specifically the colon. While diverticulosis is usually asymptomatic, it can lead to diverticulitis, which can be more serious and cause various symptoms; therefore needs to be treated as well.

Age, gender, lifestyle, diet, genetics, and geography all play a role in the development of these conditions. Thus, this article intends to offer a thorough comparison of diverticulosis and diverticulitis, taking into account various factors such as their causes, symptoms, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention methods. By gaining a better understanding of these conditions, individuals can take proactive measures to manage their health and seek necessary medical attention when required.

Diverticulosis vs Diverticulitis

How to Prevent or Treat Diverticular Disease

Terminology of Diverticulosis vs Diverticulitis

Diverticula (singular diverticulum), is a structural alteration that causes bulging of the gut in the form of pouches and pockets. These are formed as a result of herniation of the intestinal mucosa and submucosa through circular muscle layer defects in the weakened areas of the colon. Increased colonic pressure at the insertion points of the vasa recta can also contribute to the formation of diverticula. [1] They can occur singularly or in multiple numbers. They typically range from 0.5 to 1 cm in size.[2] The presence of these diverticula leads to a condition known as “Diverticulosis”. They are most often found in the lower region of the large intestine, i.e., the colon.

On the other hand, Diverticulitis is a condition that arises due to the complication of diverticulosis. It is a disorder in which the diverticula in the colon wall undergo some inflammation or infection. [3] Usually, food and waste that become stuck in the diverticula and cause irritation and infection lead to this problem. It has various types depending upon the severity of complications.

Symptoms of Diverticulosis vs Diverticulitis

Diverticulosis is usually asymptomatic and painless. Therefore, most people with diverticulosis are usually unaware of their condition and are often discovered incidentally during a routine medical examination for another condition. [4] But in some cases, it shows symptoms such as bloating, pain in the lower left side of the abdomen, fever, bleeding from the rectum, nausea, vomiting, cramping, constipation, or diarrhea.[5]

On the other hand, Diverticulitis presents itself in several forms, each of which has its associated symptoms.

Symptomatic uncomplicated diverticular disease, also known as painful diverticular disease. It is marked by non-specific episodes of lower abdominal pain without visible signs of inflammation. [6] Pain is usually periodic but can be persistent.  Abdominal pain, constipation, bloating,  irregular bowel movements, and diarrhea are some symptoms. [7]

Recurrent symptomatic diverticular disease: It is characterized by the recurrence of previously described symptoms, typically several times per year. [6]

Complicated diverticular disease: It is a more severe form that typically affects 25% of people with diverticulitis, and is diagnosed when complications are present.[8] Abscess, intestinal wall perforation, phlegmon, stricture, fecal peritonitis or fistula purulent, and small bowel blockage because of post-inflammatory adhesions are the possible complications. [6] Additionally, 5%-15% of individuals experience diverticular hemorrhage, which can be severe in 3%–5% of cases. [9,10]. 

The Prevalence of Diverticular Disease

Diverticulosis prevalence rates range from 5 to 45% in Western and industrialized countries, based on age and method of diagnosis.[11] However, diverticulitis was once thought to occur in 15% to 25% of people with diverticulosis, but new research suggests that the actual risk may be less than 5%.[12] Complications result in significant morbidity and death. The 1-year fatality rate for perforation alone is 19%. [13] 

In 2004, there were 313,000 hospitalizations, 1.9 million outpatient visits, and 3365 deaths in the United States because of diverticular disease. [14] According to estimates, the US spends 2.5 billion dollars a year on diverticular illness. [15] Between 1998 and 2005, hospital admissions for diverticulitis in the United States increased by 26%, while elective procedures rose by 28%. [16] Diverticular disease affects a large number of patients, with an estimated 2,682,168 outpatient clinic appointments. It was the most common gastrointestinal-related hospitalization release code, with 219,133 discharges for diverticulitis and 64,222 for diverticulosis in 2009. [17] However, there is no recent data on its prevalence. 

Factors Affecting Their Prevalence

The onset of diverticular disease can be affected by a number of variables, including age, dietary preferences, lifestyle, genetics, and hormonal changes. It is challenging to determine an individual’s risk of developing diverticulitis due to the complex interactions between these factors.


Evidence from the research indicated that up to 53% of an individual’s susceptibility to developing diverticulosis and diverticulitis may be due to genetic factors. [18] Additionally, scientific investigations have identified certain genes that may be involved in the development of diverticular disease. [19] However, further study is needed to understand how genetics causes these conditions.


The incidence of diverticulitis has been shown to increase with age. The prevalence of diverticular disease ranges from less than 10% in people under the age of 40 to an estimated 50% to 66% in people who are 80 years or later. In the sixth, seventh, and eighth decades of life, the age of onset has been observed more frequently.[20] However, recent medical literature shows a rise in diverticulosis in young patients. The most significant increase was observed in the 18-44 age range. The incidence is lower in individuals aged 45 to 64. Surprisingly, the group of people over 65 did not experience any major changes in incidence. [21]


Findings about which gender is more likely to get diverticulitis are not consistent. Men were found to have a higher risk of developing diverticular disease, according to previous studies. [22], [23] However, more recent research in the United States discovered that women were more likely to be hospitalized for diverticulitis-related conditions. Study design and population heterogeneity limit these works. [16], [24] 

Race & Geography: 

Diverticular disease is often called a 20th-century illness or a Westernized disease due to its rise in incidence in the last century and its geographic variation. The condition is extremely rare in Africa, especially sub-Saharan Africa and Asia, which is in sharp contrast to the numbers found in Europe and the United States. [25], [26] Studies from China and Korea have noted a prevalence of 0.5% to 1.7%; however, these individuals had a right-sided diverticular incidence of up to 75%, which is a different pattern from the western region. [27]

Diverticular disease was discovered to be more prevalent in White people (31% prevalence) than in sub-Saharan Black people (4% prevalence). [28] Also, greater access to diagnostic equipment and medical treatment in industrialized countries also leads to a higher rate of diagnosis and treatment.

Use of Certain Medication:

Certain medications, such as the regular use of aspirin or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), have been linked to an increased chance of developing diverticulosis and diverticular bleeding.  [29] Also, the use of a proton pump inhibitor (PPI) may increase the risk of developing diverticulitis, although it does not affect the severity of the condition. [30]


The prevalence of diverticulitis is significantly impacted by one’s dietary habits. A diet low in fiber and high in processed foods, red meat, and high-fat dairy products increase the risk of developing diverticulitis. [31] On the other hand, a diet rich in fiber and low in these foods reduces the risk. 

Also, patients with diverticular disease have been told to avoid nuts, grains, corn, and popcorn because undigested particles can lodge in the diverticulum and cause complications. Here is the list of foods to avoid with diverticulitis. However, the HPFS group did not find any association between them. Surprisingly, they actually found that consuming nuts and popcorn twice a week may lower the risk of developing the diverticular disease by 20% and 27%. [32]

Similarly, longer colon transit time increases pressure on the colon, leading to the formation of diverticula, which can become inflamed and result in diverticulitis. A shorter transit time, regulated by a fiber-rich diet and hydration, reduces the risk of diverticulosis and diverticulitis. [33]


Obesity is a risk factor for diverticulitis. According to the WHO, the global obesity incidence exceeds 10% for both genders and has more than doubled in the last 40 years, with 1.3 billion overweight (BMI 25-30) people and 600 million obese (BMI > 30) people. [34] Several studies have shown that increased BMI, waist circumference, and weight gain are associated with an increased risk of diverticulitis. Adipose tissue secretes a number of pro-inflammatory cytokines, which may contribute to the development of diverticulitis. [35], [36], [37], 


Smoking raises the chances of getting diverticulitis. According to a meta-analysis, there is a link between tobacco smoking and an increased risk of diverticular disease and its complications. [38], [39] Similarly, a case study found that people who smoke have a higher risk of having diverticulitis surgery. [40] 

According to a study, it has been shown to increase the chance of pneumonia, post-operative wound infections, and complications. [41], [42]

Physical Activity:

A decreased level of physical activity has been linked to an increased risk of diverticular disease. A study of nearly 50,000 American men aged 40 to 75 found that regular running was associated with a significantly reduced risk of diverticulitis and diverticular bleeding. [43] 

Additionally, a systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective studies also found that lower levels of physical activity were associated with a heightened risk of diverticular disease. [44]

Diagnosis of Diverticulosis and Diverticulitis

Diverticulosis rarely causes symptoms or requires therapy but If symptoms like abdominal pain, constipation, or diarrhea occur, a CT scan or colonoscopy may be needed to identify the cause and rule out other medical issues. Following are some of the commonly used diagnostic techniques: 

Medical History:

Taking a person’s medical history is the foremost step in diagnosing diverticulosis and diverticulitis diseases. A history of previous episodes of diverticulitis, a family history of the condition, and personal health history, such as inflammatory bowel disease, can increase the likelihood of developing diverticulitis. Similarly, diverticula with colonic or other locations are common in patients with Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, [45] Williams syndrome,[46] Coffin-Lowry, [47] and polycystic renal disease. [48] 

Physical examination: 

Physical examination is an important part of diagnosing diverticulosis and diverticulitis. During a physical examination, a physician will check for abdominal pain, tenderness, and a mass in the lower left side of the abdomen, which may indicate diverticulitis. [49] A digital rectal check could also be part of the physical examination. [50]

Since the clinical diagnosis can be unreliable in 24% to 68% of cases, laboratory and radiological studies can be used to accurately diagnose acute diverticulitis. [51]

Stool test

Stool tests check for the presence of blood or infection in the stool, which can be indicative of diverticulitis. The presence of blood in the stool can indicate that there is bleeding in the colon, [52] while the presence of infection can indicate that there is inflammation or an abscess present.

Blood tests: 

Diverticulitis and diverticulosis are often diagnosed with blood tests. White blood cell counts above normal can suggest inflammation or infection. Inflammation and infection boost white blood cell production, which can indicate diverticulitis. [53]

Imaging tests: 

Some of the commonly used imaging tests include:

Abdominal X-ray: 

It uses radiation to create images of the abdomen. X-rays can sometimes show gut diverticula (diverticulosis), but they cannot always diagnose diverticulitis. [54]

CT scan: 

Diverticulitis is better diagnosed by CT scan. CT scans use X-rays and computers to create precise body images. It has over 97% sensitivity and specificity. It can detect diverticulitis symptoms such as bowel wall thickening, inflammation around the colon, fluid accumulation, and tiny abscesses. It may also indicate fistulas. [55]

Barium enema: 

A barium enema test uses a chalky liquid called barium to create X-ray images of the colon. The barium outlines the interior of the colon, facilitating the detection of any abnormalities. This test can show the presence of multiple diverticula in patients with painful diverticular disease but is not recommended in the acute stage of diverticulitis due to the risk of perforation. [56]


A colonoscopy can be used to diagnose both diverticulosis and diverticulitis. Colonoscopy is often performed after acute diverticulitis. This test helps check the inside of the colon and rule out cancer. A flexible tube with a camera and light is inserted into the rectum and moves through the colon. To avoid perforations, it’s usually done 6 weeks after the patient has fully healed. [57] 

Need for Treatment

Diverticulitis typically requires treatment because it involves inflammation or infection in the diverticula. In contrast, diverticulosis does not typically require treatment.


Antibiotics can cure acute diverticulitis and prevent complications like abscesses and perforation, according to research. Metronidazole, ciprofloxacin, and amoxicillin-clavulanate are used for this. [58] However, Rifaximin is considered to be a suitable and effective treatment for uncomplicated diverticular disease, especially when combined with dietary fiber supplementation. [59]

Diet modification: 

Dietary changes may help prevent or treat diverticulitis.[60] You can also follow a diverticulitis diet plan (consult your physician first). Here are some suggestions [61]

  • Eat more fiber-rich foods, including whole grains, vegetables, fruits, and legumes 
  • Limit processed, high-fat, and high-sugar meals.
  • Keep hydrated to facilitate the movement of fiber through the digestive tract.
  • Refrain from drinking too much alcohol.
  • Eat smaller, more frequent meals instead of large, heavy meals.
  • Gradually increase fiber intake to prevent bloating, cramping, and gas.
  • Consume the soups you can eat with diverticulitis


Probiotics have been shown in studies to help reduce inflammation and improve symptoms linked with diverticulitis. [62] Probiotics may also aid in the restoration of normal intestinal flora, which may have been changed in diverticular disease as a result of stasis and decreased colonic transit time. [63] For instance, 

  • Consuming lactobacilli decreases symptoms of uncomplicated diverticular disease, such as bloating and abdominal pain. [64]
  • Lactobacillus salivarius, Lactobacillus acidophilus, and Bifidobacterium lactis have been found to be effective in treating acute diverticulitis. [65]

See Also: Probiotics vs Prebiotics

Lifestyle changes: 

Changes in lifestyle, such as maintaining a healthy weight through exercise and a balanced diet, staying hydrated, ceasing smoking, managing stress [66] through relaxation and exercise, and adhering to a regular sleep schedule, can aid in diverticulitis prevention, symptom management, and the prevention of chronic conditions.


Surgery is usually recommended for severe or life-threatening cases of diverticulitis when antibiotics and dietary changes don’t work or when the patient develops complications like a hole or abscess in the intestine, a stricture (narrowing of the intestine), or peritonitis (inflammation of the lining of the abdomen). In some cases, recurrent diverticulitis may also require surgery. [66]

Sigmoid resection is the most common surgery for all types of diverticular disease (sigmoidectomy) It involves removing the sigmoid colon and a small part of the rectum. The sigmoid colon is where most diverticula occur and the surgery aims to remove the affected area. The ends of the intestine are then sewn back together. [67] Similarly, research comparing sigmoid resection with conservative therapy discovered that sigmoid resection is superior to conservative treatment in enhancing quality of life in patients with recurrent, complicated, or persistent painful diverticulitis. [68] 

Remember that diverticulitis surgery is not always required and will depend on the severity of the condition, the risks and benefits of surgery, and the patient’s overall health.


  1. Tursi A., Papa A., Danese S. Review article: the pathophysiology and medical management of diverticulosis and diverticular disease of the colon. Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics. 2015;42(6):664–684. doi: 10.1111/apt.13322
  2. Wai Lun Law, Chi Leung Liu, Wai Fan Chan, Judy W. C. Ho & Kin Wah Chu (2000) Perforated Diverticulitis of the Transverse Colon, The European Journal of Surgery, 166:7, 579-580 ‘
  3. Hyde, C. (2000). Diverticular disease. Nursing Standard (through 2013)14(51), 38.
  4. Everhart JE, Ruhl CE. Burden of digestive diseases in the United States part II: Lower gastrointestinal diseases. Gastroenterology. 2009;136(3):741-754.
  5. InformedHealth.org [Internet]. Cologne, Germany: Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care (IQWiG); 2006-. Diverticular disease and diverticulitis: Overview. 2018 May 17. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK507004/ 
  6. Tursi A. New physiopathological and therapeutic approaches to diverticular disease of the colon. Expert Opin Pharmacother 2007; 8: 299-307
  7. Feuerstein, J. D., & Falchuk, K. R. (2016). Diverticulosis and Diverticulitis. Mayo Clinic proceedings, 91(8), 1094–1104. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mayocp.2016.03.012
  8. Weizman, A. V., & Nguyen, G. C. (2011). Diverticular disease: epidemiology and management. Canadian journal of gastroenterology = Journal canadien de gastroenterologie, 25(7), 385–389. https://doi.org/10.1155/2011/795241
  9. Bogardus ST Jr. What do we know about diverticular disease? A brief overview. J Clin Gastroenterol 2006; 40 Suppl 3:S108-S111
  10. Floch MH, White JA. Management of diverticular disease is changing. World J Gastroenterol 2006; 12: 3225-3228
  11. Peery AF, Barrett PR, Park D, et al. A high-fiber diet does not protect against asymptomatic diverticulosis. Gastroenterology. 2012;142(2):266–272 e261. [PubMed: 22062360]
  12. Hawkins, A. T., Wise, P. E., Chan, T., Lee, J. T., Glyn, T., Wood, V., Eglinton, T., Frizelle, F., Khan, A., Hall, J., Ilyas, M. I. M., Michailidou, M., Nfonsam, V. N., Cowan, M. L., Williams, J., Steele, S. R., Alavi, K., Ellis, C. T., Collins, D., Winter, D. C., … Lightner, A. L. (2020). Diverticulitis: An Update From the Age Old Paradigm. Current problems in surgery, 57(10), 100862. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cpsurg.2020.100862
  13. Humes DJ, Solaymani-Dodaran M, Fleming KM, Simpson J, Spiller RC, West J. A population-based study of perforated diverticular disease incidence and associated mortality. Gastroenterology. 2009;136(4):1198–1205. [PubMed: 19185583]
  14. Everhart JE, Ruhl CE. Burden of digestive diseases in the United States Part III: Liver, biliary tract, and pancreas. Gastroenterology. 2009;136(4):1134–1144. [PubMed: 19245868]
  15. Sandler RS, Everhart JE, Donowitz M, et al. The burden of selected digestive diseases in the United States. Gastroenterology. 2002;122(5):1500–1511. [PubMed: 11984534] 
  16. Etzioni DA, Mack TM, Beart RW, Kaiser AM. Diverticulitis in the United States: 1998–2005: changing patterns of disease and treatment. Ann Surg. 2009;249(2):210–217. [PubMed: 19212172]
  17. Feuerstein, J. D., & Falchuk, K. R. (2016). Diverticulosis and Diverticulitis. Mayo Clinic proceedings, 91(8), 1094–1104. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mayocp.2016.03.012
  18. Reichert, M. C., & Lammert, F. (2015). The genetic epidemiology of diverticulosis and diverticular disease: Emerging evidence. United European gastroenterology journal, 3(5), 409–418. https://doi.org/10.1177/2050640615576676
  19. Miulescu A. M. (2020). Colonic Diverticulosis. Is there a Genetic Component?. Maedica15(1), 105–110. https://doi.org/10.26574/maedica.2020.15.1.105 
  20. Parks TG. Natural history of diverticular disease of the colon. A review of 521 cases. BMJ. 1969; 4:639–645.
  21. Strate, L., Modi, R., Cohen, E. and Spiegel, B. (2012) Diverticular disease as a chronic illness: evolving epidemiologic and clinical insights. Am J Gastroenterol 107: 1486–1493.
  22. Jun S, Stollman N: Epidemiology of diverticular disease.vBest Pract Res Clin Gastroenterol 2002;16:529–542.
  23. Weizman AV, Nguyen GC: Diverticular disease: epidemiology and management. Can J Gastroenterol 2011; 25:385–389
  24. Masoomi H, Buchberg BS, Magno C, et al: Trends in diverticulitis management in the United States from 2002 to 2007. Arch Surg 2011;146:400–406.
  25. Guo-Zong P, Tong-Hua L, Min-Zhang C, et al. Diverticular disease of the colon in China: a 60-year retrospective study. Chinese Med J. 1984; 97:391–394.
  26. Kim EH. Hiatus hernia and diverticulum of the colon. NEJM. 1964; 271:764–768.
  27. Narasaka T, Watanabe H, Yamagata S, et al. Statistical analysis of diverticulosis of the colon. Tohoku J Exp Med. 1975; 115:271–275.
  28. Walker ARP, Segal I. Epidemiology of nonoinfective intestinal diseases in various ethnic groups in South Africa. Israel J Med Sci. 1979; 15:309–313.
  29. Strate, L. L., Liu, Y. L., Huang, E. S., Giovannucci, E. L., & Chan, A. T. (2011). Use of aspirin or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs increases risk for diverticulitis and diverticular bleeding. Gastroenterology140(5), 1427–1433. https://doi.org/10.1053/j.gastro.2011.02.004
  30. Sbeit, W., Khoury, T., Kadah, A., Asadi, W., Shahin, A., Lubany, A., Safadi, M., Haddad, H., Abu Ahmad, R., Abu El Hija, S., Abboud, R., Mahamid, M., Pellicano, R., & Mari, A. (2020). Proton Pump Inhibitor Use May Increase the Risk of Diverticulitis but Not It’s Severity among Patients with Colonic Diverticulosis: A Multicenter Study. Journal of clinical medicine9(9), 2966. https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm9092966
  31. Strate LL, Liu YL, Syngal S, et al: Nut, corn, and popcorn consumption and the incidence of diverticular disease. JAMA 2008; 300: 907–914.
  32. Munie, S. T., & Nalamati, S. P. M. (2018). Epidemiology and Pathophysiology of Diverticular Disease. Clinics in colon and rectal surgery31(4), 209–213. https://doi.org/10.1055/s-0037-1607464
  33. Lin OS, Soon MS, Wu SS, et al: Dietary habits and right-sided colonic diverticulosis. Dis Colon Rectum 2000; 43: 1412–1418. 29 Song JH, Kim YS, Lee
  34. Collaboration NCDRF. Trends in adult body-mass index in 200 countries from 1975 to 2014: a pooled analysis of 1698 population-based measurement studies with 19.2 million participants. Lancet. 2016;387(10026):1377–1396. [PubMed: 27115820]
  35. Ma, W., Jovani, M., Liu, P. H., Nguyen, L. H., Cao, Y., Tam, I., Wu, K., Giovannucci, E. L., Strate, L. L., & Chan, A. T. (2018). Association Between Obesity and Weight Change and Risk of Diverticulitis in Women. Gastroenterology155(1), 58–66.e4. https://doi.org/10.1053/j.gastro.2018.03.057
  36. Strate, L. L., Liu, Y. L., Aldoori, W. H., Syngal, S., & Giovannucci, E. L. (2009). Obesity increases the risks of diverticulitis and diverticular bleeding. Gastroenterology136(1), 115–122.e1. https://doi.org/10.1053/j.gastro.2008.09.025
  37. Lee, T. H., Setty, P. T., Parthasarathy, G., Bailey, K. R., Wood-Wentz, C. M., Fletcher, J. G., Takahashi, N., Khosla, S., Moynagh, M. R., Zinsmeister, A. R., & Bharucha, A. E. (2018). Aging, Obesity, and the Incidence of Diverticulitis: A Population-Based Study. Mayo Clinic proceedings93(9), 1256–1265. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mayocp.2018.03.005
  38. Wijarnpreecha, K., Boonpheng, B., Thongprayoon, C., Jaruvongvanich, V., & Ungprasert, P. (2018). Smoking and risk of colonic diverticulosis: A meta-analysis. Journal of postgraduate medicine, 64(1), 35–39. https://doi.org/10.4103/jpgm.JPGM_319_17
  39. Aune, D., Sen, A., Leitzmann, M. F., Tonstad, S., Norat, T., & Vatten, L. J. (2017). Tobacco smoking and the risk of diverticular disease – a systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective studies. Colorectal disease : the official journal of the Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland, 19(7), 621–633. https://doi.org/10.1111/codi.13748
  40. Diamant, M. J., Schaffer, S., Coward, S., Kuenzig, M. E., Hubbard, J., Eksteen, B., Heitman, S., Panaccione, R., Ghosh, S., & Kaplan, G. G. (2016). Smoking Is Associated with an Increased Risk for Surgery in Diverticulitis: A Case Control Study. PloS one, 11(7), e0153871. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0153871
  41. Baucom RB, Poulose BK, Herline AJ, Muldoon RL, Cone MM, Geiger TM. Smoking as dominant risk factor for anastomotic leak after left colon resection. Am J Surg. 2015;210(1):1–5. [PubMed: 25910885] 
  42. Sorensen LT. Wound healing and infection in surgery: the pathophysiological impact of smoking, smoking cessation, and nicotine replacement therapy: a systematic review. Ann Surg. 2012;255(6):1069–1079. [PubMed: 22566015]
  43. Aune, D., Sen, A., Leitzmann, M.F. et al. Body mass index and physical activity and the risk of diverticular disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective studies. Eur J Nutr 56, 2423–2438 (2017). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00394-017-1443-x
  44. Strate, L. L., Liu, Y. L., Huang, E. S., Giovannucci, E. L., & Chan, A. T. (2011). Use of aspirin or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs increases risk for diverticulitis and diverticular bleeding. Gastroenterology140(5), 1427–1433. https://doi.org/10.1053/j.gastro.2011.02.004
  45. Strate, L., Erichsen, R., Baron, J., Mortensen, J., Pedersen, J., Riis, A. et al. (2013) Heritability and familial aggregation of diverticular disease: a population-based study of twins and siblings. Gastroenterology 144: 736–742.e1.
  46. Deshpande, A., Oliver, M., Yin, M., Goh, T. and Hutson, J. (2005) Severe colonic diverticulitis in an adolescent with Williams syndrome. J Paediatr Child Health 41: 687–688.
  47. Machin, G., Walther, G. and Fraser, V. (1987) Autopsy findings in two adult siblings with Coffin- Lowry syndrome. Am J Med Genet 3(Suppl.): 303–309.
  48. Lederman, E., McCoy, G., Conti, D. and Lee, E. (2000) Diverticulitis and polycystic kidney disease. Am Surg 66: 200–203.
  49. Hennessy, B., & Pfeil, S. (2004). Diverticulosis. Encyclopedia of Gastroenterology, 632–634. https://doi.org/10.1016/B0-12-386860-2/00192-1 
  50. Diagnosis of Diverticular Disease | NIDDK. (n.d.). Retrieved February 27, 2023, from https://www.niddk.nih.gov/health-information/digestive-diseases/diverticulosis-diverticulitis/diagnosis
  51. Linzay CD, Pandit S. Acute Diverticulitis. [Updated 2022 Aug 8]. In: StatPearls [Internet]. Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing; 2022 Jan-. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK459316/
  52. Wilkins, T., Embry, K., & George, R. (2013). Diagnosis and management of acute diverticulitis. American family physician87(9), 612-620.
  53. Gans, S. L., Atema, J. J., Stoker, J., Toorenvliet, B. R., Laurell, H., & Boermeester, M. A. (2015). C-reactive protein and white blood cell count as triage test between urgent and nonurgent conditions in 2961 patients with acute abdominal pain. Medicine94(9), e569. https://doi.org/10.1097/MD.0000000000000569
  54. Destigter, K. K., & Keating, D. P. (2009). Imaging update: acute colonic diverticulitis. Clinics in colon and rectal surgery22(3), 147–155. https://doi.org/10.1055/s-0029-1236158
  55. Naves AA, D’Ippolito G, Souza LRMF, Borges SP, Fernandes GM. What radiologists should know about tomographic evaluation of acute diverticulitis of the colon. Radiol Bras. 2017 Mar-Apr;50(2):126-131
  56. D. (2007). Geriatric Clinical Advisor, 52–69. https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-032304195-9.50006-7
  57. Lahat, A., Yanai, H., Sakhnini, E., Menachem, Y., & Bar-Meir, S. (2008). Role of colonoscopy in patients with persistent acute diverticulitis. World journal of gastroenterology14(17), 2763–2766. https://doi.org/10.3748/wjg.14.2763
  58. Tursi A. (2010). Diverticular disease: A therapeutic overview. World journal of gastrointestinal pharmacology and therapeutics1(1), 27–35. https://doi.org/10.4292/wjgpt.v1.i1.27
  59. Simpson, J., & Spiller, R. (2005). Colonic diverticular disease. Clinical Evidence, (14), 543-550.
  60. Carabotti M, Falangone F, Cuomo R, Annibale B. Role of Dietary Habits in the Prevention of Diverticular Disease Complications: A Systematic Review. Nutrients. 2021; 13(4):1288. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13041288
  61. Recommendations | Diverticular disease: diagnosis and management | Guidance | NICE. (n.d.). https://www.nice.org.uk/guidance/ng147/chapter/recommendations#diverticulosis
  62. Lahner E, Bellisario C, Hassan C, Zullo A, Esposito G, Annibale B. Probiotics in the Treatment of Diverticular Disease. A Systematic Review. J Gastrointestin Liver Dis. 2016 Mar;25(1):79-86. doi: 10.15403/jgld.2014.1121.251.srw. PMID: 27014757.
  63. Boynton W, Floch M. New strategies for the management of diverticular disease: insights for the clinician. Therap Adv Gastroenterol. 2013 May;6(3):205-13. doi: 10.1177/1756283X13478679. PMID: 23634185; PMCID: PMC3625022.
  64. Lahner E., Bellisario C., Hassan C., Zullo A., Esposito G., Annibale B. Probiotics in the Treatment of Diverticular Disease. A Systematic Review. J. Gastrointest. Liver Dis. JGLD. 2016;25:79–86. doi: 10.15403/jgld.2014.1121.251.srw.
  65.  Ojetti V., Petruzziello C., Cardone S., Saviano L., Migneco A., Santarelli L., Gabrielli M., Zaccaria R., Lopetuso L., Covino M., et al. The Use of Probiotics in Different Phases of Diverticular Disease. Rev. Recent Clin. Trials. 2018;13:89–96. doi: 10.2174/1574887113666180402143140.
  66. Weizman, A. V., & Nguyen, G. C. (2011) Diverticular disease: epidemiology and management. Canadian journal of gastroenterology = Journal canadien de gastroenterologie, 25(7), 385–389. https://doi.org/10.1155/2011/795241
  67. Cologne, Germany: Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care (IQWiG); 2006-. Diverticular disease and diverticulitis: Surgery for diverticulitis and diverticular disease. 2018 May 17. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK506997/
  68. Santos A, Mentula P, Pinta T, et al. Comparing Laparoscopic Elective Sigmoid Resection With Conservative Treatment in Improving Quality of Life of Patients With Diverticulitis: The Laparoscopic Elective Sigmoid Resection Following Diverticulitis (LASER) Randomized Clinical Trial. JAMA Surg. 2021;156(2):129–136. doi:10.1001/jamasurg.2020.5151

See Also

Low Purine Foods List

Purine Rich Foods List

Best Foods for Colon Health

Leaky Gut Diet

Foods to Avoid With Acid Reflux